viernes, 30 de enero de 2009


They have recently been published in some media, especially the proximity of the date, information relating to the Mayan prophecies, where we talk about events that are seen as a drastic change in the world as we know, and that for many represents the end. In the same way, they are related to other prophecies that speak of the end of the world and causing shock and paranoia among the people. There is first to understand that this phenomenon is not new. Whether the human being, a reflection of its primitive nature, has always thought that approaches the end of the world. There has always been a prophecy that has been linked to any time throughout human history. However, even if there is an abrupt end and accurate, the earth is many millions of years to happen. The end of the world is not as it looks most of the prophecies. Is the inability of humans to explain the issues more logical and its potential to worry about irrelevant things, what makes you think that after 4000 million years of existence, one of these days the earth will simply cease to exist . There are others, it was prophetic texts and based on the current reality, we anticipate that we ourselves to ending the devastation of the land and misuse of resources, which is partially true as it is unstoppable, but that of no way represents the end of the world. Represent the extinction of the human race, perhaps, but not if the life and development. However, this is somehow inevitable and could even say that natural. Because if the annual growth rate of population is, in some years we need double the resources and possibly three, and so on until you reach a limit. It is well known that this world is a world of resources, renewable but not infinite and some day there will be a collapse in the natural supply. Not have to think long to realize that, in whatever form, the man was born to be extinct species because that is his nature, but not if the same land. One day soon, the earth as the planet intelligent, self-sustainable and that is going to die and sacudidita a billion people, or the same man and exterminate it, or die of hunger as a way , heat or cold, because these are the signs and not just because of that, but because it is the logical process of life itself. The irony is thinking of a final apocalyptic stand and concern for the death, if no one is spared from it. The man will die anyway because it came, and it will not so different from known forms of dying, but the land will remain the land for at least much longer. Either way, if a natural disaster or intentional came to pass, life will be delayed. Some agencies will survive according to their ability to adapt and survive and repopulate the earth again. And I do not need a prophecy to predict that it is simply what has been observed throughout the history of this planet. Its atmosphere, its land, its waters eventually regenerate and create new species in a process of evolution, as it has, and will continue to change and constant renewal until one day in 5000 million years of the sun and exploit this world to be absorbed by the supernova and life ceases to exist on this planet. If just prior to that outcome in advance, there are intelligent beings on earth with the same capacity of human beings to feel concern at this end on the planet, because they worry that, if not brought to conclusion then that the Life is an event full of absurdities, which it is not live, but what is done while you live. The ideology of sacrifice among the Maya David Stuart The most recent studies of Classic Maya culture have opened new perspectives to the interpretations of the meaning and the reasons for the ritual of human sacrifice. Scenes of torture and killing of captives in 2 quarts of Bonampak, Chiapas. PHOTO: Bonampak Documentation Project The human sacrifice was an important part of the rituals and ideology MAYAS. The most frequent in the REGISTRATION OF ART AND CULTURE THAT IS THE RITUAL SACRIFICE by decapitation, described as an act of "creation." THE KILLING OF PRISONERS OF COMPLEX recreate the myths that allowed the establishment of a cosmic order and was instrumental in the ideology of the SEÑORÍO MAYAS. Surprised to learn that human sacrifices were part of the ancient Mayan religion and rituals, such as the bloody ceremonies think the first thing that comes to mind are the Aztecs and Mexico. The first researchers tried to emphasize this essential cultural difference between "peaceful" Maya lowlands and the "brutal" civilizations of Central Mexico, which even came to say that human sacrifice was rare among the Maya and had little importance. Today we know more deeply the culture of the Classic Maya and, over time, we found more and more parallels between the Aztec and Mayan religion. Here I intend to demonstrate that the latest studies on Classic Mayan culture have opened new perspectives to the interpretations of the meaning and the reasons behind the ritual of human sacrifice. METHODS OF KILLING The extraction of the heart, so common among the Aztecs, rarely appears in Mayan art. The most famous scenes are in ascension to the throne of kings of Piedras Negras, Guatemala. 11 in the wake of this site is in the chest cavity of a slaughtered a bundle of feathers or perhaps the motif of the knife used in the ceremonial ritual (Fig. 2). Almost always seem to slaughter the children, the extraction of hearts of children is also in several mythological scenes painted ceramics. Sometimes, as in the case of Piedras Negras, the dead child was placed in a large bowl of offerings, with ritual instruments. Images appear only in scenes related to accession to the throne or early calendar rituals of the new kings, which indicates that the sacrifice of children was done in well-defined circumstances. The slaughter of children, the embodiment of purity and life also was in the Post, in Yucatan, in the early years of the Colony. 2. Among the Mayans, the removal of the heart, so common among the Aztecs, appears in a few cases, such as Stela 11 Piedras Negras, Guatemala, that is, in the chest cavity of a child killed, a bundle of feathers or perhaps the motif of the knife used in ceremonial rituals. PHOTO: TEOBERT MALER / Peabody Museum / Harvard University DRAWING: LINDA SCHELE 4. Another method of slaughter, probably only reserved for prisoners of war was the removal of entrails. This vessel Late Classic shows one of the most terrible scenes of Mayan art, the ritual sacrifice of a prisoner tied to a wooden scaffold, and a grotesque character who attacks him with a spear, while the musicians play drums and trumpets. DRAWING: GRIFFITHS DIANE PECK Another method of slaughter, probably reserved for prisoners of war was the removal of entrails. The picture painted on a vessel that is a ritual sacrifice of a prisoner tied to a wooden scaffold, and a grotesque character who attacks him with a spear, while the musicians play drums and trumpets (Fig. 4), is one of the most terrible scenes of Mayan art. The murals of Bonampak are also images of horrific torture ritual (figs. 1 and 5) where the captives are defenseless fingers bleeding and at least one of the corpses are wounds that indicate death by torture. Is also the head of a victim who shows how to torture and killing could go together. 1. The most recent studies of Classic Maya culture have opened new perspectives to the interpretations of the meaning and the reasons for the ritual of human sacrifice. Scenes of torture and killing of captives in 2 quarts of Bonampak, Chiapas. PHOTO: Bonampak Documentation Project 5. a) In the murals of Bonampak (north wall, 2 quarts) are terrible images of torture ritual. b) You see, for example, the captives with bloody fingers. PHOTOS: Bonampak Documentation Project The two most common methods of killing were among the Maya and despeñamiento beheading of victims, tied up the stairs of the temples. The latter is explicitly mentioned in a dictionary colonial Yucatec Maya with the term Cucul eb (literally "rolled down the stairs"), defined simply as "another ancient sacrifice." In the Classic inscriptions referring to this as Yal, "throwing" a captive. This practice can be seen in a number of sculptures of the Classical Period Yaxchilan, where the prisoners take the form of large ceremonial ball in a context in which explicit imagery recreates the ceremonial game ball. In the largest and most complex scene is the ruler Bird Jaguar IV, playing ball, where stairs before falling and "bounces" a prisoner named Ik 'Chih, "Black Deer," the lord of a kingdom called Lakamtuun (probably Lacantun located opposite the river). It is unlikely that the scene actually happens in a stadium, but rather the visual language of the game ball is used to represent the sacrifice of a prisoner of war. There is an important link, and still unclear, the sacrifice and the ball game, that is recurring in Mayan art and architecture, such as the scene of the beheading biggest ball game of Chichen Itza. There, the visual parallel is rather between the ball and the skull and not the whole body, as in Yaxchilan. THE IDEOLOGY OF SACRIFICE It is interesting to examine more closely the scene of Yaxchilan and consider the long hieroglyphic inscriptions that are under the stairs of sacrifice (Fig. 7). It comes from one of the most important religious texts of all the Maya region, since it has three very ancient mythological events occurring in the sacrifice by decapitation. The text consists of three dates and sequences of fragments showing the same structure: 1) the verb ch'ak-b'aah, "decapitate", 2) the name of a deity or ancestral figure and 3) an ordinal number (first second, third) ahil before the word, perhaps meaning "wake up" or, more figurative, "creation." If you look carefully glyphs to "decapitate" we see the initial signs ch'ak, "hatchet" with an item like a comb, ka, which gives us the completion of the phonetic word "cut". The sign-headed animal b'aah "bullet" or "person, head, be." Together, they give us a common term for "decapitation" in all entries. The three fragments are read as follows: manik 13, 5 people is the beheading of [1], is the first creation 9 kan, 12 XUL is the beheading of [2], is the second creation 1 Ajaw, 13 XUL is the beheading of [3] are three creations (together) It is interesting that the three events are separated by long periods: nearly 120 years between the first two and 1 300 from the last two. Must be mythological events, which is confirmed by the end of a recording of Yaxchilan which reads: "happened at the site of the black hole", a term of appointment for the Classic Maya underworld or a part of it. The registration of Yaxchilan is important because it shows a clear link between the killing and beheading by the notion of "awakening" and "creation." The idea that death leads to the formation of a new order is common in religion and in the Mesoamerican cosmology, and many similar examples could be cited in other Maya texts. In Palenque, for example, the board recently discovered in the Temple XIX refer to the beheading of a mythological creature with a large reptile characteristics, which apparently started a new political and religious. Thus, the inscriptions of Yaxchilan described three different stages of the mythological creation of the world, according to the cosmology of the place, and in doing so validate and establish the meaning behind the ritual sacrifice of historical displays the scene. Namely, King Bird Jaguar is directly involved in the event of "creation" through the sacrifice of a prisoner of Lakamtuun and undoubtedly more. The king is dressed as a ball player and his attire is also associated with the mythical "water snake" Maya deity little understood that in other sources, it seems closely linked to the rebirth and renewal of the world. 7. The entry of the stairway of Building 33 of Yaxchilan is a text of three sequences of information that show the same structure and a clear link between the killing and beheading by the notion of "creation." Recorded three mythical sacrifices. DRAWING: IAN GRAHAM A series of portraits of Palenque reinforces the idea that prisoners of war are vested with a deeply religious and cosmological significance. In one of the courtyards of the palace are several large reliefs, flanking the steps of the house, which show prisoners, two of the captives are major hieroglyphic texts on their clothes. In one of the texts are read: nahwaj Yahil Ajaw k'uhul baakal, "the ahil ( 'wake up' or 'establishment') of the holy lord of Palenque was exposed and the other (?)",: nahwaj Yahil kalomte ' "the supreme ruler of ahil was exposed." At that time in the history of the Palenque king was K'inich Janab Pakal, Pakal the Great. " The structure of these brief texts shows clearly that the word ahil, already seen in Yaxchilan, refers to the prisoners themselves (the exhibition of captives is a common theme in other historical inscriptions of Palenque and other sites). This means that the captives are described in some texts of Palenque ahil as is, "creations" of the king. In this language suggests that the unfortunate prisoners were destined for slaughter, because only through death can meet the religious and political role of the king as one that perpetuates and ordering the cosmos. This mix of sacrifice, war and creation is also the central theme in Copán and Quirigua, on the other side of the Mayan world. One of the most important events in the history of this region occurred on May 3 in 738 AD, when Waxaklajun Ub'aah K'awiil then great ruler of Copan, was defeated and killed by K'ahk 'Tiliw Chan Yopat King of Quirigua, which set the stage for the early peak of Quirigua in southeastern Maya. The significance of the event is clear if we see the importance given in the texts of Quirigua, which seem to boast about the defeat of his neighbor, who was his long oppressor. However, it is curious that the scribes of Quirigua never talk about the capture or defeat the king of Copan and relate only to his sacrifice with the words "behead" (Fig. 9), which we saw earlier in Yaxchilan. In an inscription states that the slaughter was carried out at the site of the black hole. " In other words, there is little distinction between this text, which tells a sacrifice historical and mythological three events of "creation" we saw in Yaxchilan. The ruler of Copán was sacrificed in a ritual that apparently was a representation of a mythical event before. Interestingly, it really is a political and military struggle between two powerful leaders have expressed in the official records in ideological terms of gods and sacrifices. 9. In Quirigua Stela J is that the May 3 from 738 AD, Waxaklajun Ub'aah K'awiil, ruler of Copan, was defeated and killed by K'ahk 'Tiliw Chan Yopat, King of Quirigua. However, no reference to the defeat of the king of Copan, but their sacrifice in the place of the black hole "- the term" beheading ", as in Yaxchilan. DRAWING: DAVID STUART KINGS AND SLAUGHTERING Another type of recurrent slaughter was among the ancient Mayans bled and offer their own blood to the ancestors, deities and other cosmic forces. These rites of bleeding there, of course, throughout Mesoamerica, in different societies. Were particularly important because the blood was the substance of the life and soul. Among the leaders and elites (and they represent the most direct evidence), the bleeding was more important as their lives and souls constituted important dimensions of the cosmos itself. The blood of kings, according to the Mayan ideology, was the substance that gave life to the growth of the world around us. This can be seen in the more explicit scenes of Yaxchilan, where bleeding is symbolized decorated flowing streams through the hands of kings. These streams are identical to the Mayan glyph for holy or sacred, k'uh (ul), and seem to represent the essence of the king inside the body, which becomes visible through the rite of self. It should be noted that within the torrents are glyphs Yax yk'an, "green" and "yellow", which gives us the sense of "tender" and "mature." The blood of the king symbolizes the vitality and the cycle of agriculture. It is clear that these streams are not flowing blood, as once suggested, but rather the image of the divine soul that resides in the blood of kings. In recent years, these manifestations of the power of the kings have been more frequent in our discussions about religion and political ideology Maya. But it must take into account the similarities and differences of these rituals with the sacrifices of captives, such as those described here. The ruling could express their religious power through their souls and blood, highly charged with symbolism, but also could sacrifice their prisoners to strengthen its position as those who embodied the process of cosmic creation. Sacrificing the prisoners is not important by blood and hearts to be offering, but because it follows the old mythological where such destruction results in the creation and perpetuation. The slaughter was one of the primary events in the Mayan creation myths and rituals of the Classical period were a reflection and evocation of these events.


Creation of the heavens and the earth 1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. 2 And the earth was empty and without a warrant. There was darkness over the face of the ocean, and the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. 3 Then God said, "Be Light" and there was light. 4 God saw that the light was good, and God divided the light from the darkness. 5 God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning was the first day. 6 Then God said: "There is a vault in the water, to separate the waters from the waters." 7 And God made the vault, and divided the waters under the dome of water that are on the vault. And it was so. 8 God called the vault Heaven. And the evening and the morning was the second day. 9 Then God said, "Meet the waters under the sky in one place, so it appears dry." And it was so. 10 God called the dry land, and the reunion of the waters called Seas, and God saw that it was good. 11 Then God said: "the earth grass, plants that provide seeds and fruit trees that bear fruit, according to his kind, whose seed is in itself, on the ground." And it was so. 12 The land produced grass, plants that provide seeds according to their species, fruit trees whose seed is in the fruit, according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. 13 And the evening and the morning was the third day. 14 Then God said, "there be lights in the vault of heaven to distinguish day from night, to serve as a signal to the seasons and for days and years. So 15 to serve as skylights illuminate the earth from the vault from heaven. " And it was so. 16 And God made two great lights: the greater light to dominate the day, and the lesser light to dominate the night. He also stars. 17 God put in the vault of heaven to give light on the earth, 18 to dominate the day and night, and to separate light from darkness. And God saw that it was good. 19 And the evening and the morning was the fourth day. 20 Then God said: "Result in countless living waters, and birds have to fly over land, in the vault of heaven." 21 And God created the large aquatic animals, all living things that move and that the water produced, according to its kind, and every winged bird according to its kind. God saw that it was good, 22 and God blessed them saying: "Be fruitful and multiply. Fill the waters of the seas and birds multiply on the earth." 23 And the evening and the morning was the fifth day. 24 Then God said: "the earth by living species: cattle, reptiles and animals of the earth, according to its kind." And so. 25 God made the animals of the land according to its kind, cattle according to their species of reptiles and land according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. 26 Then God said, "make man in our image, after our likeness, and have dominion over the fish of the sea, the birds of the sky, livestock, and across the land, and any animal that moves on land. " 27 I believe, then, God to man in his image, the image of God He created him; male and female he created them. 28 God blessed them and told them: "Be fruitful and multiply. Fill the earth; sojuzgadla and have dominion over the fish of the sea, the birds of heaven and all animals that move over land." 29 God also said: "Behold, I have given any plant seed which is on the surface of the whole earth and every tree which bears fruit seeds, they will serve you food. And all 30 animals of the earth, any bird of the sky, and any animal that moves on the ground that there is life, the whole plant will serve the food. " And it was so. 31 God saw all that he had made, and behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning was the sixth day. -------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------ 2 Thus were finished the heavens and the earth and all its occupants. 2 On the seventh day God had finished the work he did, and rested the seventh day from all the work he had done. 3 So God blessed the seventh day and hallowed, because he rested from all his work of creation that God had done. 4 These are the origins of the heavens and the earth when they were created. The man in the garden of Eden When Jehovah God made the earth and the heavens, 5 had not yet any shrub land in the countryside, nor had any plant sprouted from the field, because Jehovah God had not rained on the earth, men had to grow. 6 But the land went up from a steam watered the whole surface of the earth. 7 Then Jehovah God formed man from the dust of the earth. Breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living being. 8 And Jehovah God planted a garden in Eden in the East and put it to the man who had formed. 9 Jehovah God made to spring from the earth every tree attractive to the eye and good to eat well in the middle of the garden, the tree of life and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. 10 A river went out of Eden to water the garden, and then was divided into four heads. 11 The name was first Pisón. The land surrounding any of Havilah, where there is gold. 12 And the gold of that land is good. Also there are amber and onyx. 13 The name of the second river was Guijón. The land surrounding any of Ethiopia. 14 The name of the third river is Tigris, which flows east of Assyria. And the fourth was the Euphrates River. Took 15 therefore Jehovah God to man and put him in the garden of Eden to cultivate it and stores it. 16 And Jehovah God commanded the man saying: "You can eat all the trees of the garden, but 17 of the tree of knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, because the day you eat of it, surely die." Creation of women 18 Jehovah God He said: "It is not good for man to be alone, I will support an ideal." 19 Jehovah God, then, was the land of all animals in the field and every bird of the sky, and brought the man to see how the call. What the animal called man, that's his name. 20 The man put names to all cattle, the birds of the sky and all the animals in the field. But Adam did not find support for it right away. 21 Then Jehovah God made the man fell on a deep sleep, and while he slept, took one of his ribs and closed up the flesh instead. And 22 of the rib that Jehovah God took the man, he brought a woman and man. 23 Then the man said: "Now, this is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh. This will be called Woman, because it was the man." 24 Therefore, the man leave his father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife and shall become one flesh. 25 were both naked, the man and his wife, and is not ashamed. -------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------ Disobedience of the first pair 3 Then the snake, which was the most cunning of all animals in the field that Jehovah God had told the woman: - You really God says: "Do not eat from any tree in the garden? 2 The woman answered the serpent: We can-eat fruit from trees in the garden. 3 But the fruit of the tree that is in the midst of the garden God has said: "Do not eat it or touch it, lest muráis." 4 Then the serpent said to the woman: Certainly not die. 5 It is that God knows that the day I eat it, your eyes will be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil. 6 Then the woman saw that the tree was good for eating, it was visually appealing and that it was tree codiciable to achieve wisdom. He, therefore, the fruit and ate. And given that her husband was with her, and he ate. 7 And the eyes were opened to both, and they realized they were naked. Then sewn fig leaves and made ceñidores. 8 When they heard the voice of Jehovah God walking in the garden in the cool of the day, the man and his wife hid from the presence of Jehovah God among the trees of the garden. 9 But Jehovah God called the man and asked him: - Where are you? 10 replied: -I heard your voice in the garden and I was scared, because I was naked. So I hid. 11 He asked God: - Who told you you were naked? Have you ever eaten of the tree you sent comieses not? 12 The man replied: -The woman who gave me for companion, she gave me the tree, and I ate. 13 Then Jehovah God said to women: - Why did you do this? The woman said: -The serpent deceived me, and I ate. 14 Then Jehovah God said to the serpent: -Why did this, you will be cursed by all domestic animals and all animals in the field. You drag it over your belly and eat dust every day of your life. 15 And I will put enmity between you and the woman and between your offspring and their offspring, it will hurt in the head, and you will injured heel. 16 The woman said: Will increase your long-suffering in the pregnancy, with pain to give birth to children. Your desire will take you to your husband, and he enseñoreará you. 17 And the man said: Because obey the voice of your wife and ate from the tree from which you sent saying: "Do not eat it," the earth is cursed for your cause. Eat it with pain every day of your life, 18 will produce thorns and thistles, and eat plants in the field. 19 In the sweat of your brow shall eat bread until you return to earth, as it were taken. Because you are dust and to dust you will return. 20 The man called the name of his wife Eve, because she is the mother of all living. 21 Then Jehovah God made garments of skin for Adam and his wife, and dressed. 22 And Jehovah God said: Behold, the man has become like one of us, knowing good and evil. Now, that does not extend his hand, take also the tree of life, and eat and live forever. 23 And Jehovah God gave the garden of Eden, to till the land that was taken. 24 expelled, then, the man and placed cherubim at the east of the Garden of Eden, and a glowing sword that was moving across direction, the path to save the tree of life. -------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------ Story of Cain and Abel 4 The man met his wife Eva, which conceived and gave birth to Cain. Then she said: "I have acquired a man from Jehovah!" 2 After she gave birth to his brother Abel. Abel was a shepherd and sheep, and Cain the tiller of land. 3 Aconteció after a while Cain brought the fruit of the earth, an offering to Jehovah. 4 Abel also brought an offering of the first of his sheep, the best of them. And Jehovah looked pleased with Abel and his offering, 5 but looked pleased to Cain and his offering. Cain was enraged by that much, and his countenance fell. 6 Then Jehovah said to Cain: - Why did you enraged? Why has your countenance fallen? 7 If you do good, you will not be lifted? But what if you do not do well, sin is at the door and seduce you, but you must enseñorearte him. 8 Cain spoke to his brother Abel. And it came to be together in the field, Cain rose up against his brother Abel and killed him. 9 Then Jehovah asked Cain: - Where is your brother Abel? And replied: I do not know. Am I perhaps saved my brother? 10 I asked: - What have you done? The voice of thy brother's blood cries out to me from the earth. 11 now, damn you're away from the earth opened her mouth to get your hands the blood of your brother. 12 When you work the land, it will not return to its strength. And you will be a fugitive and wanderer on earth. 13 Cain said to Jehovah: - Great is my punishment to be endured! Here are 14 that I miss now the face of the earth, and I hide in your presence. Seré fugitive and wanderer on earth, and I happen to find anyone who will kill me. 15 Jehovah replied: Not this. Whoever kills Cain will be punished seven times. Then Jehovah put a sign on Cain, so do not kill anyone who found. 16 And Cain departed from before Jehovah, and dwelt in the land of Nod, east of Eden. Descendants of Cain 17 Cain knew his wife and she conceived and gave birth to Enoch. Cain built a city which named as the name of his son Enoch. Enoch was born 18 Irada. E begat Mejuyael Irada. Mejuyael begat Metusael. And Lamech begat Metusael. 19 Lamech took for himself two women. The name of the one was Ada, and the name of the other, Zila. 20 Ada gave birth to Jabal, who became the father of those living in tents and raise livestock. 21 The name of his brother was Jubal, who became a father of all who play the harp and flute. 22 Zila also gave birth to Tubal-Cain, master of all those working bronze and iron. And the sister of Tubal-Cain was Naamah. 23 Then Lamech said to his wife: "Ada and Zila, hear my voice. Oh women of Lamech, listen to me said: I killed a man, it hurt me; killed a boy, it hit me. 24 If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, Lamech shall be seventy-seven times. " Descendants of September 25 Adam knew his wife again, and she gave birth to a son in September and called his name, saying: "For God has replaced another child in place of Abel, whom Cain killed." September 26 is also a son was born, and called his name Enos. Then they started to invoke the name of Jehovah. -------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------ 5 This is the book of the descendants of Adam When God created man, he did like God. 2 Male and female he created them, and blessed them. And the day you were created, they called the name of Man. 3 When Adam was 130 years, fathered a son by her likeness, according to its image, and called his name in September. 4 years after Adam, who lived to breed in September were 800, and begat sons and daughters. Every 5 years that Adam lived were 930, and died. When September 6 was 105 years, begat Enos. September 7 after father lived to 807 years Enos, and begat sons and daughters. All 8 years were 912 in September, and died. 9 When Enos was 90 years, begat Cain. 10 Enos lived after breed Cain 815 years, and begat sons and daughters. All 11 years of Enos were 905, and died. 12 When Cainán was 70 years, spawned Mahalaleel. 13 Cainán lived Mahalaleel to breed after 840 years, and begat sons and daughters. All 14 years of Cain were 910, and died. 15 When Mahalaleel was 65 years, begat Jared. 16 Mahalaleel lived breed Jared after 830 years, and begat sons and daughters. Every 17 years Mahalaleel were 895, and died. 18 When Jared was 162 years, begat Enoch. 19 Jared lived after begat Enoch 800 years, and begat sons and daughters. All 20 years of Jared were 962, and died. 21 When Enoch was 65 years, father of Methuselah. 22 Enoch walked with God 300 years to breed after Methuselah, and begat sons and daughters. All 23 years of Enoch were 365 years. He walked 24 thus Enoch with God and disappeared, for God took him with them. 25 When Methuselah was 187 years, begat Lamech. 26 Methuselah lived after begat Lamech 782 years, and begat sons and daughters. All 27 years of Methuselah were 969, and died. 28 When Lamech was 182 years, fathered a son, 29, and called his name Noah, saying: "This will relieve us of our works and the painful work of our hands, because of the land that Jehovah cursed." 30 Lamech lived after Noah 595 years to breed, and begat sons and daughters. All 31 years of Lamech were 777, and died. 32 When Noah was 500 years, begat Sem, Cam and Jafet. -------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------ Corruption of humanity 6 Aconteció that when the men began to multiply on the face of the earth, their daughters were born. 2 And the children of God, seeing that the daughters of men were beautiful, it took for women, choosing between them all. 3 Then Jehovah said: "No contendere forever my spirit in man, for he is flesh, and your life will be 120 years." 4 In those days there were giants in the earth, and even later, when joined the children of God with the daughters of men and their children were born. They were the heroes who were men from the age of renown. 5 Jehovah saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that any tendency of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. 6 Then Jehovah regretted having made man on earth, and hurt him in his heart. 7 And Jehovah said: "Arrasaré the face of the earth people I've created, from cattle to humans, reptiles and birds of heaven, because I regret having done so." 8 But Noah found grace in the eyes of Jehovah. Preparations for the ark 9 This is the story of Noah: Noah was a just and fair man in his generation, Noah walked with God. 10 Noah begat three sons: Sem, Cam and Jafet. 11 The earth was corrupt before God, was full of violence. 12 God looked at the earth, and behold it was corrupt, for all flesh had corrupted their way on earth. 13 Then God said to Noah: "I have decided the end of all flesh, because the earth is full of violence because of them. Here with that destroy the earth. 14 Become an ark of timber conifer tree. Make compartments the ark, and cúbrela to pitch inside and out. 15 Make this way: 300 cubits long, 50 cubits wide and 30 cubits high. 16 Make a skylight and one terminal of the high elbow. The door of the ark will be one of its sides. Construct a ground floor, an intermediate and higher. 17 For behold, I will bring a flood of water on earth, to destroy all flesh in which there is breath of life under heaven. All that is on earth will die. 18 But I will make my covenant with you. enter the ark you, your children, your wife and your children of women with you. 19 of every living thing of all flesh, Meter in the ark two of every kind, in order to survive you. They will be male and female: 20 birds by species, according to their species of livestock, of any animal that moves on earth, according to its kind. Two of every kind come to you to survive. 21 Takes you all kinds of foods to eat, so you can store and serve food to you and them. " 22 And Noah did according to all that God commanded him, so he did. 7 Then Jehovah said to Noah: "Get in the ark you, and your whole family, because I've seen that you are right in front of me in this generation. 2 takes you clean all animals seven pairs, the male and female, but of animals that are not only a clean pair the male and female. 3 of the birds of heaven also took seven pairs, male and female, to preserve the species on earth. 4 Because after seven days I I will rain upon the earth for forty days and forty nights, and arrasaré the face of the earth all living things I've done. " 5 And Noah did according to all that Jehovah commanded him. The flood 6 Noah was 600 years when the flood waters came on the ground. 7 Noah entered the ark, and his children with him, his wife and women of their children, caused by the flood waters. 8 Of clean animals and animals are not clean, the birds and everything that moves upon the earth, 9 two by two into the ark with Noah, male and female, as God had commanded Noah. 10 And it came as the seven days on the earth came the flood waters. The 11 days of the second 17 months of the year 600 of Noah's life, on this day were broken all the sources of the great ocean and opened the windows of heaven. 12 And there was rain on the earth for forty days and forty nights. 13 On the same day Noah entered the ark, his sons Shem, Cam and Jafet, the wife of Noah and the three women for their children with them. 14 and they all went according to animal species, all species according to their pets, all animals that travel on land according to its kind, all birds by species, and every bird, all you have wings. 15 And they came to the ark, Noah, two by two, of all people who breathe. 16 came from all male and female animals, as God had commanded him. And he closed the door Jehovah. 17 The deluge lasted forty days on earth. The waters rose and lifted the ark, and rose above the earth. 18 The waters rose and increased both on the ground that the ark floated on the surface of the water. 19 The waters rose above the earth so that the highest mountains under the whole heaven were covered. 20 The mountains were covered, and the waters rose fifteen cubits above. And every 21 died that moves upon the earth, both birds and livestock, wild animals, animals that move over the earth and all men. 22 had died every breath of life into his nostrils, everything we had in the dry ground. 23 This was razed from the face of the earth all living things. Were razed to the ground from cattle to humans, reptiles and birds of the sky. Only Noah and those who were with him in the chest. 24 And the waters prevailed upon the earth for 150 days


Physician Data Query, PDQ ®, is a computerized system (database) that contains information about the prevention, detection and treatment of cancer. PDQ ® also contains information on genetics, health care and support of complementary and alternative medicine. It is a service of the National Cancer Institute for people with cancer and their families, for physicians, nurses and other medical professionals. The information in Physician Data Query, PDQ ® is reviewed and updated each month by experts in the areas of treatment, prevention, detection and care support. PDQ ® also offers information on research in new treatments (clinical trials), doctors who treat cancer, and hospitals with cancer programs. Summaries of information on cancer in PDQ ® The summary of information in Physician Data Query, PDQ ® about cancer, are peer reviewed and updated monthly by six editorial boards of specialists in adult treatment, treatment of children, child care support, detection and prevention, genetics and medicine Complementary and alternative medicine. These councils review the current literature from more than 70 biomedical journals, evaluate their importance and abstracts summarize clear. Many of these papers are also available in Spanish. ________________________________________ Are clearly written and contain the latest information on cancer, which is reviewed and updated monthly by the experts. • PDQ ®: Questions and Answers Fact sheet about the PDQ database of National Cancer Institute. • Treatment of cancer in adults (PDQ ®) The summaries of information in Physician Data Query, PDQ ® on treatments for adults are based on scientific data and provide information about prognosis and treatment of the major types of cancer as adults. Abstracts are available from more than 70 types of cancer and include brief summaries of some less common cancers. The summary of treatments for adults in Physician Data Query, PDQ ®, are designed in two versions. The first version is for patients with cancer and the second is for medical professionals. The versions are written for patients with an easy to understand language and not technical. Versions for professional medical summaries provide detailed information about the prognosis, staging (stage) and treatment of each type of cancer, and key citations refer to the medical literature and include links to the synthesis of appointments. • Treatment of childhood cancer (PDQ ®) Summaries of information on treatment for children in Physician Data Query, PDQ ®, offering information about the main types of cancer in children, and no information on common cancers of childhood. The summary of treatments for children in Physician Data Query, PDQ ®, are designed in two versions. The first version is for patients with cancer and the second is for medical professionals. The versions are written for patients with an easy to understand language and not technical. Versions for professional medical summaries provide detailed information about the prognosis, staging and treatment of each type of cancer, and key citations refer to the medical literature and include links to the synthesis of appointments. • Medical Care Support (PDQ ®) (how to overcome the effects of cancer) The summary of information on health care support Physician Data Query, PDQ ®, refer to the care that is offered to improve the quality of life of cancer patients. The summary of information on health care support PDQ ® for patients with cancer provide descriptions of the pathophysiology and treatment of common physical and psychosocial complications of cancer and its treatment, such as pain, hypercalcemia (excess calcium in the blood) and nausea and vomiting. Summaries of medical support Physician Data Query, PDQ ®, are designed in two versions. The first version is for patients with cancer and the second is for medical professionals. The versions are written for patients with an easy to understand language and not technical. Each version of the document for medical professionals almost always contains a description, information on the etiology, assessment and management, and a bibliography of current literature. • The complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of cancer (PDQ ®) Summary information reviewed by experts on the use of complementary and alternative medicine as a treatment for cancer. NORMAL CELLS And cancer cells The cell is the simplest, with life itself, which is organized tissues. It is composed of a mass surrounded by protoplasm which contains a nucleus. A cell wall surrounds the cell and separated from their environment. Within the core DNA, which contains the information that program cellular life. The man is composed of millions of cells. The cell divides and by doing so their structures are also divided into exactly equal to the other above with the same components and functions as the original. The cells grow at a normal pace and remain limited in their areas. Muscle cells are formed and grow in the muscles and not bone, those in the kidneys do not grow in the lungs, and so on. These features and this growth rate is determined by the DNA. Some cells have less time to live than others, such as cells of the gut have a life span of two weeks, while the red blood cells live for about three months. Other cells will live as long as the person lives and only divide to replace themselves, this would be the case of bone cells that act when it comes to repair a fracture. The life of each cell is different and will operate as it issued its DNA is different for each type of cell. Each cell is distinct. Blood brings oxygen and nutrients necessary for life and includes cellular waste products produced by cells and transported to the organs of filtering and cleaning (kidneys, liver, lungs). The lymph is a colorless liquid that is composed, mostly by lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells, and that goes around the body through lymph vessels. The immune system is responsible for defending the body through leukocytes that seek and destroy bacteria and viruses. Leukocytes traveling through blood and lymph and accumulate in places where there is infection to surround and kill the bacteria or virus, and later migrate through lymph vessels to lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are like clusters of grapes in different parts of the body. Each node receives the lymphocytes and where they are filtered and destroy bacteria, cell debris and the very worn. When an infection, the lymph nodes are swollen. If the infection occurs in a tooth, the swollen neck. If the infection is in one hand, be increased for those in the armpit. Nodes may also be inflamed when a tumor. Normal cell becomes a cancer cell because of a change or mutation in the DNA. Sometimes these cells whose genetic load has changed, die or are eliminated in the lymph nodes. But other times, remain alive and reproduce. Cancer cells have a different aspect, because its form has changed or because they contain nuclei larger or smaller. These cells are unable to perform the functions that correspond to cells belonging to that tissue. Generally multiply quickly, because they lack a control mechanism of growth. Often, they are immature because they are multiplied in a very fast and do not have enough time to grow before fully divided. By forming a large number of cancer cells, piles, pressure or other bodies to block and prevent them from carrying out their work. As there is limited space where they are originating, and spread to other areas, say they are invasive. Tend to migrate to other places, through the blood or lymph. The cells that are responsible for defending the body tend to destroy and separate, but if they survive may produce new growth in a different place, metastasis, and damage to other organs. Each of the cells in our body are closely regulated some aspects such as growth, interaction with other cells and even their life cycle. Cancer happens when a certain type of cells lost these normal control mechanisms and begins to grow in a way that the body can not regulate. The different types of cancers have signs, symptoms, treatment and prognosis differ depending on the type of cells involved and the degree of uncontrolled cell growth. What is cancer? All types of cancer, including those that occur in childhood, have a common pathological process of cancer cells to grow unchecked, become abnormal sizes and morphologies, ignore its usual limits on the inside of the body and destroy neighboring cells, in the long run, it may end up spreading to other organs and tissues (known as metastasis). As the cancer is spreading, consuming ever-greater part of the nutrients the body needs to function. Cancer patient consumes energy, destroys organs and bones, and weakens their defenses against other diseases. Fortunately, childhood cancer is relatively uncommon, affecting U.S. only about 14 of every 100,000 children each year. Considering all age groups, the most common cancers in children are leukemia, lymphoma and brain cancer. After ten years, there is an increased incidence of osteosarcoma (bone cancer). Each type of cancer affecting different parts of the body, and its treatment and cure rates are also different. The factors that trigger cancer in children do not often coincide with those that can trigger in adults, such as smoking or exposure to environmental toxins. In rare cases, children who have certain genetic disorders such as Down syndrome, may have a higher risk of developing cancer. Also, children who have undergone chemotherapy or radiotherapy due to a pre-cancer may also have a higher risk of developing another cancer in the future. However, in most cases, childhood cancers are due to mutations (or changes) is not in the genes inherited from their cells in the growth process. Since these errors occur randomly and unpredictably, there is currently no way to prevent them. It is possible that your child's pediatrician will detect some early signs of cancer in a periodic review. Still, many of these symptoms (including fever, swollen lymph nodes, frequent infections, anemia, or bruises) are also proper to infections or other disorders other than cancer. For this reason, it is not uncommon for both doctors and parents to suspect other childhood diseases at the first signs of cancer. After receiving the cancer diagnosis, it is important to seek help for his son in a medical center specializing in pediatric oncology or cancer treatment in children. Cancer Treatment The treatment of cancer in children includes chemotherapy (using drugs to kill cancer cells), radiation (the use of radiation to kill cancer cells) and surgery (to remove cancerous cells or tumors). The treatment program for each case depends on the type of cancer, its aggressiveness, which is widespread and the child's age. Surgery In children with leukemia or lymphoma, surgery often plays a minor role. This is because leukemia and lymphoma are cancers that affect the circulatory and lymphatic systems, which are widely distributed throughout the body, making it difficult to treat locally removing a specific area. However, in the isolated osteosarcoma and other tumors that affect small parts of the anatomy and do not have metastases in other parts of the body, surgery is often an effective weapon to fight cancer, combined with chemotherapy and / or radiotherapy. Children with certain types of cancers may be candidates to undergo a bone marrow transplant. Bone marrow is a spongy tissue that is in the interior of certain bones of the body and plays the role of producing blood cells. If a child suffers from a type of cancer that affects the function of blood cells, a bone marrow transplant (in conjunction with chemotherapy to kill cancer cells) can promote the growth of healthy new cells. The bone marrow transplant is also sometimes used to treat cancers in which the operation is not committed to blood cells, because it helps doctors to use higher doses of chemotherapy that would be tolerated if the patient had not been made transplantation. Quimioterapia Chemotherapy is a medication that is used as a complementary treatment to kill cancer cells that remain in the body. Children and adolescents with cancer often receive chemotherapy intravenously (injected into a vein) or oral (by mouth). Some types of chemotherapy can be applied in intrathecal (in cerebrospinal fluid or spinal fluid). Medicines entering the bloodstream and kill cancer cells in those parts of the body affected by cancer. The duration of chemotherapy and the type of drugs that are used depends on the type of children suffering from cancer and its response. The treatment is different in each patient, so that a child may have to undergo chemotherapy daily, weekly or monthly. It is also possible that the doctor recommended several courses of treatment, so that the body of the child to rest and recover between cycles and cycle. Many of the drugs used in chemotherapy involve the risk of problems in the short and long term. Short-term effects include nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, anemia, increased risk of bleeding and increased risk of infection due to destruction of the bone marrow and kidney damage and menstrual irregularities. Some of the drugs used in chemotherapy was also associated with risk of bladder inflammation, hematuria (blood in urine), hearing loss and kidney damage. Others may cause heart problems and skin. Some of the side effects are long-term infertility, growth disorders, organ damage and increased risk of developing a second cancer. Call your child take precautions and to prescribe other drugs to counteract the maximum possible number of side effects of chemotherapy. Radiotherapy Radiotherapy is one of the most common treatments for cancer. When a child is subjected to radiation, is irradiated by a beam powerful waves or particles, which injure or destroy cancer cells. Many kinds of childhood cancers are treated with radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy and / or surgery. Radiation has many potential side effects (such as increased risk of malignancies and sterility), you should discuss with your child's pediatrician. The main goal of treatment is to cure cancer, this is the absolute priority over any other aspect of patient care. Anyway, there are many drugs and therapies that can help make treatment more bearable. Facing Cancer Wherever possible, older children with cancer should be actively involved in their treatment. They should provide information on their specific type of cancer and its effects using a language adapted to their age and level of understanding. However, when cancer affects younger children under 4-years-usually sufficient to explain just who are "sick" and need "medicine" to get better. In all age groups, the goal is to avoid the fear and misunderstanding. Older children may feel guilty, as if cancer was his fault. Psychologists, social workers and other members of the team treating cancer can be a great help to reassure the child, support and help you cope and express their feelings. The cancer treatment team can guide and support to patients and their families. Can help them bear the suffering and to cope with uncertainty and changes in the life of the patient and the family imposed by cancer and its treatment. If necessary, the team may also contact or visit the school to explain the child's diagnosis and their teachers or fellow students. Replace the fear, ignorance and misunderstanding by the empathy, understanding and information is a fundamental goal in the process of helping a child with cancer cope with their illness. The diagnosis and treatment of childhood cancer are lengthy processes that require time and patience, and treatment is associated with side effects, both short and long term. But thanks to medical advances, more and more children with cancer who successfully complete treatment, which may leave the hospital environment and grow like any other child. At present, up to 70% of all children with cancer can be cured. Revised and updated by: Robin E. Miller, MD Date of Review: June 2007


What is a Spontaneous Abortion? A spontaneous abortion is a pregnancy that ends abruptly before the 20th week of it. This occurs before the fetus (growing baby) can survive outside the womb. During a spontaneous abortion, the fetus, the placenta and amniotic sac of fluid surrounding the fetus is expelled through the uterus - sometimes, not all of them completely expelled. Factors Causing a Spontaneous Abortion A spontaneous abortion could occur because the fetus was not developing properly, or because the placenta (the tissue that connects the baby growing inside the uterus) were not sufficiently linked to it. In several cases, however, the cause is unknown. Spontaneous abortions are fairly common and occur in approximately 15-20% of all pregnancies. Moreover, the fact of suffering a spontaneous abortion does not mean you can not enjoy a safe and normal pregnancy in the future. Risk Factors There are several risk factors that are believed to somehow increase the risk of suffering a spontaneous abortion: • Food poor. • smoking. • Insificiencia hormone, or hormonal imbalance. • Presence of some kind of infection, such as rubella, bacterial vaginosis, chlamydia and other sexually transmitted infection. • chronic health problems, including: lupus, congenital heart disease, severe kidney disease, diabetes, or thyroid diseases. • Exposure to large doses of radiation. • Drug, which could harm the fetus. • High fever. • have an IUD put in the time of conception. • uterine malformation, or presence of large uterine fibroids. The good news is that most of the risk factors listed above, once identified, can usually be eliminated or controlled. Normal Signs of Pregnancy It is important to remember that each cramp, pain, or formation of blood clots are not necessarily signs denoting the possible development of a spontaneous abortion. Signs of a normal pregnancy that would not necessarily be indicative of the imminence of a spontaneous abortion include: • mild cramps, body aches or feeling of tension in one side of the abdomen. This is normal, unless any of them were accompanied by bleeding or cramps were severe and constant. • Manchado minor before or after the time when we should have your period. This is normal, and is known as implantation bleeding, and do not necessarily indicate the presence of a problem with her pregnancy, provided they were not accompanied by abdominal pain in the low. Bleeding occurred during the implementation process, are usually pink or brownish color. • The soft pink bleeding occurred after sexual relations are common and usually are not indicative of the presence of any problem, unless the flow was bleeding or was accompanied by cramps. When should I call a Doctor Bleeding or bleeding during pregnancy always cause alarm in the pregnant woman, since this is one of the signs of a spontaneous abortion. The following symptoms and types of bleeding could be signs of an impending spontaneous abortion. You should call up your doctor and seek medical attention if you experience any of these symptoms: • vaginal bleeding bleeding stronger than that of a normal period, which lasted more than 2 weeks. • vaginal bleeding and exceeds that penetrate a thick pad, or more than a pad in one hour. • vaginal bleeding accompanied by large blood clots (the size of a walnut, or even larger.). • cramps that were worse or last more than 2 days. • Download or stream nauseating smell coming from her vagina. • Colds or fever (temperatures above 38 degrees C or 100.4 degrees F or even higher.). • vaginal bleeding, similar to that of a menstrual period, which could last up to a week after he suffered a spontaneous abortion, with clear color-bleeding known as vaginal bleeding ligero', which could occur during a short period of time after all this process. If you were to suffer one or all of these symptoms, remember to make sure to inform them immediately to your doctor. If your symptoms are severe enough or his doctor was not available, you should call 911 or EMS service, or should go immediately to an emergency room near the place where he resides. After recovering a Spontaneous Abortion • The normal periods should recover after a period of 3-6 weeks. • Use sanitary towels or intimate place to hold the tampon vaginal bleeding. You can use tampons during your next period. • Do not use douches. • Do not swim in pools or wash with hot water immersion. • Take a shower, instead of becoming bathing. • Do not have sex. • You may experience some pain in the lower abdomen, similar to the pain caused by cramps of each menstrual period. The pain could last up to 2 days after he suffered a spontaneous abortion. Talk to your doctor if the pain persists or if you can not control it. • Presence of pain and discomfort in the chest. • dilation and curettage. This procedure is carried out if the fetus and / or own any of the tissues of pregnancy (placenta, amniotic fluid bag) remain inside the uterus. If the fetus or other tissue remains inside the uterus, could cause severe bleeding or infection. • The daily activities could be resumed after he suffered a spontaneous abortion, as soon as you feel strong and ready for this. Ask your doctor specific instructions related to vigorous exercise or strenuous. Conceiving a baby after he suffered a Spontaneous Abortion It is highly recommended that you wait until you've had at least 1 normal menstrual period after suffering a spontaneous abortion, before trying to get pregnant again. This will give your uterus and your body long enough to be able to recover fully. Link Recommended Stories About Pregnancy: If you need to find a way to express their feelings after having had a spontaneous abortion, while at the same time could help other women who are going through the same experience, then you should visit this site. A place where women can write and publish their own experiences, and where their personal story could help other women who were passing by the loss of a pregnancy would realize that they are not alone during this hard time in their lives . Each time increases the number of abortions among adolescents in developed countries. Many children see a solution to the abortion problem that afflicts at that time, but abortion is not the actual output to the problem. Andalusia abortion, part of you is dying and the psychological consequences are difficult to heal. The positions are correct sexual abstinence, the use of contraceptive methods and in the case of pregnant posture human life should be about. It should be noted that there are different types of abortion and that their characteristics are specific to each stage of pregnancy. Spontaneous abortion Is one that occurs before 20 weeks of pregnancy and where there is a loss of the fetus. There are studies that look at a 20% chance of spontaneous abortion for any woman. One of the symptoms can be a pain in the belly. You can also submit an excessive bleeding and cramps in the lower abdomen. These symptoms are a sign that the pregnancy is not developing in a normal way. The causes may vary, however, that a woman had spontaneous abortions, does not mean you can not have children. It is advisable to visit a specialist to diagnose and identify a specific treatment for each case. Abortion or voluntary interruption of pregnancy Is that which is produced under the supervision and medical intervention. It is a decision that takes the couple and is done voluntarily. Usually a very complicated and often difficult decision to make because there are several factors that influence what to do: physical, psychological risks, social and legal aspects. Abortion is a very difficult moment for the couple and especially for women. It is very possible that there will be a great depression in the subject. After the termination of guilt may arise, and everything related to babies and dates alleged that there should be born baby, birthday, etc ... will tend to entristecerla further. At the moment there are two procedures: surgery and the abortion pill that, very recently, has started marketing in Spain. 1. Surgery. The technique varies depending on the time of pregnancy. Until 12 weeks, the technique used is the aspiration, and is performed under local anesthesia. Introducing a plastic tube through the cervix. Meanwhile, the other end of the tube is connected to a machine that takes the contents of the uterus. Using this technique is the dismemberment of the fetus. Studies show that the fetus fleeing the cannula and delivers moans when being dismembered. The intervention did not last long and after a few hours, the girl can go home. Sometimes, if there is any remaining inside the matrix is a curettage or scraping. 12 to 16 weeks, a curettage was performed with general anesthesia. Is a dilation of the cervix and scraping the contents of the uterus using an instrument called Legras. Requires a night of hospitalization. Over 16 weeks, the method is induction. Some drugs are caused by contractions of the uterus, forcing him to remove the content. Extended hours and usually does not use general anesthesia, but a sedative. After the operation, women should be paid two or three days. 2. The Pill It is fashionable because it is new, but is not much use of it. In fact, in Spain, it seems that its success is relative, since the process leading to end abortion is very complex and traumatic. Many people think that this is taking a pill and the woman goes to her house, but it is not. Actually there are three jacks: take three tablets in a first visit and 48 hours after the woman has to return to the clinic to take another dose, which will be made to expel the contents of the uterus. The woman will remain under observation at the clinic for a few hours, to encourage there to be deportation. These past hours, if there has been removal of the contents of the uterus, the woman left, taking her to live on their own expulsion. This is really hard. Then go back to the clinic to get a scan and verify that it has not been anything in the womb, we would have to perform a curettage. As you can see, the process is much slower and more women will suffer throughout the process. • On the UN general • What happened to the United Nations? • The celebration of the 50th anniversary of the publication of the Human Rights cause a serious concern. • The UN gives new impetus to the campaign abortion "safe motherhood". • The owner of the CNN donates millions of dollars to the UN to promote contraception and abortion among teenagers. • Data on the UN loose. • UN Conference • United Nations Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women • The plot against the life and family in Cairo. • The Forum of Mar del Plata. • The Beijing betrayed women. • The Copenhagen Conference and the "development" social. • From Cairo to Beijing via Copenhagen: How the UN promotes campaigns antinatalistas. • Habitat II: New deception of the UN. • United Nations Forum in The Hague is a threat to humanity • Some of the Latin American conference of the UN. • Promoters of abortion impose their ideology on antivir reunion of the UN (Cairo +5). • The UN and some special topics • The new population control and global racism. • How the UN redefines family • The UN opens doors to international organization of homosexuals and pedophiles sadomasochists. • alert governments about treaty on women's rights. • Did the Clinton administration tries to "legalize" the reunion of prostitution in the UN? • Your plans for your children (fragment). (On the "education" sexually immoral.) • The "reproductive rights" and their interpretations: A cause that is promoted at the UN • The culture of death in general • Groups of radicals and the "New Era" will meet at the UN to create a world religion • Religious and spiritual leaders come together to form a council to advise the UN • Pro Life Activists hosting a cautious optimism about the new International Criminal Court • UN agencies • Population Fund (UNFPA and UNFPA) or UNFPA and the population control program in China. o The policy of one child per family in China. The government mistreats women. Avanza and population control in refugee camps. Milosevic and UNFPA or unite against the Kosovars. or Microsoft also supports population control. Human rights and the Population Fund and United Nations • Children's Fund (UNICEF) or UNICEF, and population control. or UNICEF to protect children, not stop coming to the world. Clinton proabortista or recommended to lead UNICEF. o The International Convention of the United Nations on behalf of children? Wrong!! o The new International Convention on the Rights of the Child is a threat to the family in the United States and worldwide. Data on the loose, or UNICEF. UNICEF intends to use or to the Catholic Church • World Health Organization (WHO) Data on single or WHO. Report on or experimentation with the vaccine pregnancy. WHO or promoting abortion • Organization for Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Data on single or UNESCO. • International Criminal Court (ICC) Proabortistas or promote the criminalization of "forced". o The new International Criminal Court not explicitly protects the family. • World Bank o The World Bank put a price on the lives of unborn children. • The teaching of the Catholic Church on the United Nations • Message of the Fourth Latin American Bishops Conference of the United Nations. • The Catholic Church defends humanity in Cairo. • Statement by Mrs. Mary Ann Glendon, Head of the Delegation of the Holy See on the Beijing Conference. • The Delegation of the Vatican decides on the outcome of the summit in Beijing. • Press release from the Permanent Observer Mission of the Holy See on its decision not to contribute to UNICEF in 1997. • Newsletter of the UN • News about the United Nations • Drafts of the Millennium Summit shows the intentions of the UN to increase its power and influence in the world • Continue to grow the campaign to support the presence of the Vatican at the UN • inaccurate reports on the Millennium Summit causing fears exaggerated • International Leaders will meet near the UN to promote a "world government" • Leader of the Population Fund addressed the UN charged with anger and bitterness • The Canadian government and an official of the UN to attack pro-life groups • Possible proabortistas in the defeat of the major UN meeting • Continuing problems in the campaign against the Holy See at the UN • Alarming secret meetings at the UN: Proposed access to abortion for girls 10 years and forcing doctors to practice Pro Life abortion • Certain Latin American countries offer false "reproductive rights" in Beijing +5 • Protestant and Islamic support to the Vatican at the UN • Campaign to support the Vatican at the UN more than 2,000 organizations • UN News (318): "USA: The Senate rejected the UN Convention on Women (CEDAW)" • Two documents extremists are moving towards the UN General Assembly • The UN seeks to muzzle pro-life organizations • Activists in favor of the family cause impact Beijing +5 conference of the UN • stagnating Prepcom Beijing +5 UN Interim reunion planning, abuse of Pro Life • Catholics, Protestants, Mormons, Jews and Muslims to defend the Vatican proabortistas • United Nations (UN) conditions its aid to Nicaragua to the acceptance of abortion • Danger to life at the International Criminal Court • The UN contradicts itself in terms of world population • The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child calls for abortion to babies who suffer malformations • The Center for Reproductive Law and Policy uses the UN to promote abortion • Powerful NGOs are prepared to exert pressure in an ominous UN • proabortista campaign to expel the Vatican from the UN • The new International Criminal Court explicitly protects NO family • Do alert Beijing +5: We need you in New York from 6 to March 17! • Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) who alerted the family about the dangers of Beijing +5 and proposed "World Day of unborn children" • UNICEF: War unreported against women and children • Did the Clinton administration tries to "legalize" the reunion of prostitution in the UN? • The owner of the CNN donates millions of dollars to the UN to promote contraception and abortion among teenagers • Important UNFPA staff appears to have lied to the drafters of the new Venezuelan constitution in relation to abortion • Genocide in the name of "family planning": The United Nations Population Fund UN bribes gynecologist in Kosovo • to take lightly the high mortality due to AIDS in Africa reunion of the United Nations (UN) • Population Fund said that the United Nations carried out secret operations during the war in Kosovo • Honduras suffers attack the United Nations • Increased coverage on the fear of demographic implosion • UN News • Organizations proabortistas want to expel the Vatican from the UN • UN Commission on Human Rights • Intervention by the Holy See at the preparatory meeting for the Cairo +5 • Sources Vaticanas denounce the treatment offered by the UN refugee • The Vatican defends life and the family reunion in the UN • Group proabortista not want the Vatican to participate in UN conferences • The UN held a forum to promote population control and abortion • United Nations - is about the follow-up meeting to the Cairo Conference, where he attempted to abortion as "international law". • United Nations - the world of entertainment personalities promote condoms among youth. • United Nations - The celebration of the 50th anniversary of the publication of the Human Rights cause a serious concern. • UN: alarming decline in global population. • Some future and significant United Nations meetings • The Earth Charter promotes pantheism UN universal and denigrates Judaism, Christianity and Islam. • The Islamic conference yields to pressure from the UN • United Nations: Excluding parents, reaffirms its commitment to extend services to youth reproductive health incluyene abortion. • UN: More about the new human rights • USA: It could lose its vote at the general assembly of the United Nations • Declaration of Human Rights Defenders "will be adopted by the Economic and Social Council of the UN • Cut crimial International: Decisive Days • End the conference for the International Criminal Court • The Economist: On the International Criminal Court • The United States seeks to restrict the international court • UN: Tell me who you're with, and I'll tell you who you are. • New attack on the UN to the rights of parents. See the ghost of Cairo • Article from The Observer of London, on the treatment of refugees by the United Nations • Representative Republican plan complained of "Reproductive Health for Refugees" • Session number 42 of the Commission on the Status of Women at UN • repudiated UN official in Honduras

jueves, 22 de enero de 2009


En épocas relativamente recientes el hábitat de los leones se extendió desde la Península Ibérica hasta el oeste de la India, y la mayor parte de África. En Europa, los leones se extinguieron en tiempos históricos. En el Cáucaso, la población de leones asiáticos desapareció en el siglo X. Entre el final del siglo XIX y principios del siglo XX, el león se extinguió en el Norte de África y Oriente Medio. En la actualidad, la mayor parte de su población se encuentra en el Este de África, y sus números están disminuyendo con rapidez. Por ejemplo, a comienzos de los '90 se estimaba la población de leones africanos en 100.000, a mediados de esa década los investigadores dieron una cifra de 50.000. A comienzos del siglo XXI se estimó la población en 30.000 y actualmente se estima en 20.000. Esto quiere decir que la población se reduce a gran velocidad y que los censos realizados pueden ser poco fiables dado a que cada vez que se hace una nueva estimación se descubre que la población a decrecido gravemente. Posiblemente la última estimación (20.000 leones africanos) sea muy optimista y que queden menos de 10.000 ejemplares. En la actualidad el hábitat de los leones se encuentra restringido (cada vez más por la invasión del ser humano) casi por completo al África subsahariana, siendo el bioma preferido de estos superpredadores, el de las sábanas, así como el del Sáhel y el Velt. De las subespecies africanas de león existentes en tiempos históricos, la de El Cabo desapareció en 1865 y la del Atlas se extinguió en estado salvaje en 1922, debido a la caza ejercida por el ser humano. El león del Atlas sólo sobrevive actualmente en algunos parques zoológicos. Es común creer que los leones son exclusivos de África, pero en la Prehistoria también habitaron Europa y Siberia, llegando a colonizar el oeste de Norteamérica (desde Alaska hasta México) durante la última glaciación. Posiblemente los más famosos de estas subespecies prehistóricas eran el león de las cavernas (Panthera leo spelaea) y el león americano (Panthera leo atrox) (que no debe ser confundido con el puma pues a este también se le conoce como león americano). El león asiático es menos corpulento y de melena menos poblada en los ejemplares salvajes que las subespecies africanas. En tiempos de la Grecia clásica, tenía poblaciones en los Balcanes y el Cáucaso. Hasta el medioevo los leones eran bastante frecuentes en el Cercano y Medio Oriente, así como en el subcontinente indio. Testimonio de esto son los abundantes bajorrelieves asirios y persas que muestran como la caza de los leones era un deporte de la realeza. Incluso el emblema actual de la India, tomado del de los antiguos Maurya, posee tres leones. También en la Biblia se hace varias veces mención de leones que habitaban en el Cercano Oriente. Fue exterminado en Palestina en tiempos de la edad media, y en el resto del Asia después de la llegada del arma de fuego aproximadamente en el siglo XVIII. En Irán, el último ejemplar fue tiroteado en 1942. La subespecie sobrevive en la actualidad en el Bosque de Gir en el estado de Gujarat, en el noroeste de la India. Unos 360 ejemplares habitan en este santuario de 1.412 km², y sus números siguen siendo estables. Taxonomía y evolución Los expedientes más antiguos del Panthera leo en África datan de 1,5 millones de años atrás. Hace 700.000 años, el león apareció en Europa por primera vez con el Panthera leo fossilis, en Isernia, Italia. De este león, se originó el león de las cavernas (Panthera leo spelaea), hace aproximadamente 300.000 años. Posiblemente a finales del Pleistoceno el león cavernario emigró a Norteamérica, dando lugar al león americano (Panthera leo atrox). El león solía ser común en Eurasia norteña y América a finales del pleistoceno, pero se extinguió ahí al final de la última glaciación, hace aproximadamente 10.000 años. Subespecies La principal diferencia entre las subespecies del león es su localización geográfica. La evidencia genética indica que los leones actuales posiblemente se originaron de un mismo antepasado en común hace sólo 55.000 años. Las diferencias entre los leones africanos son modestas, lo que podría sugerir que los leones del África subsahariana podrían ser considerados como una sola subespecie. Las siguientes son las subespecies más reconocidas por algunos científicos. Panthera leo atrox - León americano, se originó hace aproximadamente 35.000 años, y se extinguió hace unos 10.000 años. Panthera leo bleyenberghi - León de Katanga. Habita en Angola, Botswana, República Democrática del Congo, Namibia, Zambia y Zimbabwe. Panthera leo europea - León europeo, no se ha comprobado la autenticidad de esta subespecie (probablemente se haya tratado en realidad de leones asiáticos), pero se cree que habitó en la península de los Balcanes, y fue cazado extensamente por Romanos, Griegos y macedonios. Se encuentra extinto desde hace poco más de 2.000 años. Panthera leo fossilis - León primitivo (extinto). Panthera leo krugeri - León de Transvaal o sudafricano, habita en cinco países del Sur de África. Panthera leo leo - León de Bereber o del Atlas, extinto en estado salvaje desde 1922. Este león era el tercero en tamaño, después del león de las cavernas y americano. Panthera leo massaicus - León del Masai, habita en el Este del continente africano. Panthera leo melanochaitus - León del Cabo, se encuentra extinto desde 1865. Panthera leo persica - León asiático, habita en el Bosque de Gir, India. Panthera leo senegalensis - León del Oeste de África, habita desde Senegal a la República Centroafricana. Panthera leo spelaea - León de las cavernas, habitó en Eurasia. Apareció hace aproximadamente 300.000 años, y desapareció después de la última glaciación, hace unos 10.000 años. Panthera leo vereshchagini - León del Este de Siberia. Panthera leo youngi - León del Nordeste de China, apareció hace 350.000 años. El Marozi, un león manchado, se cree en ocasiones que puede ser una subespecie distinta del león; pero pudo haber sido un león adulto que haya conservado su patrón de manchas característico de las crías. Se encuentra extinto desde 1931. Otra hipótesis menos probable es que haya sido un híbrido entre un leopardo y un león, conocido comúnmente como leopon. Variaciones La mayoría de estas variaciones se dan con animales en cautiverio, sin embargo, en estado salvaje también se han dado algunas de estas particularidades. León blanco - Están prácticamente extintos en estado salvaje, aunque en un tiempo se les podía encontrar en Timbavati, Sudáfrica. Su color tan inusual es debido a un gen recesivo. Los leones blancos tienen la desventaja de que por su color, son vistos fácilmente por sus presas durante el día. Ligre - Es el cruce entre un león masculino y una tigresa. Poseen características físicas y del comportamiento de ambos padres. Sin embargo, suelen crecer mucho más que cualquiera de los dos padres. Los ligres machos son estériles, pero los ligres femeninos generalmente son fértiles. Tigón - El tigón es menos conocido, y es el resultado del cruce entre un tigre macho y una leona. Los tigones suelen ser relativamente pequeños, pues los machos pesan alrededor de 150 kg, aproximadamente un 20% más pequeños que un león masculino de tamaño medio. Al igual los ligres, los tigones tienen características físicas y del comportamiento de ambas especies, además, los machos son estériles.

miércoles, 21 de enero de 2009


· “¡Oh Dios!, Tú eres mi Dios, Por ti madrugo;mi alma está sedienta de ti;mi carne tiene ansia de ti,como tierra reseca, agostada, sin agua.¡Cómo te contemplaba en el santuario,viendo tu fuerza y tu gloria!Tu gracia vale más que la vida,te alabarán mis labios.Toda mi vida te bendeciré y alzaré las manos invocándote.Me saciaré de manjares exquisitos,y mis labios te alabarán jubilosos.En el lecho me acuerdo de tiy veDios mío
·lando medito en ti,porque fuiste mi auxilio,y a la sombra de tus alas canto con jubilo; mi alma está unida a ti, y tu diestra me sostiene.”Salmo 62Mi alma te busca a ti, “Como busca la ciervacorrientes de agua,así mi alma te buscaa ti, Dios mío;tiene sed de Dios,del Dios vivo:¿cuándo entraré a verEl rostro de Dios?Las lágrimas son mi pannoche y día,mientras todo el día me repiten:¨¿Dónde está tu Dios?¨Recuerdo otros tiempos,y mi alma desfallece de tristeza:cómo marchaba a la cabeza del grupo,hacia la casa de Dios,entre cantos de júbilo y alabanza,en el bullicio de la fiesta.¿Por qué te acongojas, alma mía,por qué te me turbas?Espera en Dios, que volverás a alabarlo:¨Salud de mi rostro, Dios mío¨Cuando mi alma se acongoja,te recuerdo,desde el Jordán y el Hermóny el Monte Menor.Una sima grita a otra simacon voz de cascadas:tus torrentes y tus olasme han arrollado.De día el Señorme hará misericordia,de noche cantaré la alabanzadel Dios de mi vida.Diré a Dios: Roca mía,¿porqué me olvidas?¿por qué voy andando sombrío,hostigado por mi enemigo?Se me rompen los huesospor las burlas del adversario;todo el día me preguntan:‘¿Dónde está tu Dios?’¿Por qué te acongojas, alma mía,por qué te me turbas?Espera en Dios, que volverás a alabarlo:‘Salud de mi rostro, Dios mío.’Salmo 41


Fue la tercera sede de la capital del llamado reino de Guatemala que comprendía a los estados de Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua y Costa Rica así como Chiapas, una parte de México. Fue construida a partir de 1543 por el ingeniero Juan Bautista Antonelli en el Valle de Panchoy, a donde fue trasladada luego de la destrucción por inundación del segundo sitio, ubicado en el Valle de Almolonga, en las faldas del Volcán de Agua (a donde había sido llevada tras abandonar el primer asentamiento en Iximché en 1527). Durante su desarrollo y esplendor fue conocida como una de las tres ciudades más hermosas de las Indias Españolas.
La antigua Guatemala fue la tercera ciudad en esplendor en la América española, competía con ciudades como México, Puebla, Lima, Quito y Potosí. Sin embargo, las circunstancias especiales de los terremotos acaecidos el 29 de julio de 1773, en pleno florecimiento del barroco, cortaron su proceso de crecimiento y modificación naturales. El resto de las grandes ciudades coloniales padecieron de la furia destructiva del neoclasicismo en los siglos pasado y presente mas no fue el caso de la antigua Guatemala que ha permanecido detenida en el tiempo y recordando la grandeza de la capital de la capitanía general del reino de Goathemala. Asimismo, esta urbe ejerció notable influencia estética en el área aledaña y en gran parte de centro América, Honduras, El Salvador y Nicaragua, y en Chiapas, al norte